Compilation – the Method of Work of Ancient Georgian Authors and Editors
Abstract: The paper aims at the perception of one of the methods of Georgian author-editors, in particular compilation and on the other hand, its isolation from a quote, combination and plagiarism. According to its classical definition compilation is a term in literary studies that implies a non-independent literary or scientific work, which, in turn, is based on researches or works made by others. Two forms of compilation are encountered: revised (slightly or significantly) and unchanged. An approach, attitude is absolutely unrestricted and authors, original chroniclers are referenced not for the purpose we do at present, but in order to either add more credibility to narration, or depict the connection with the predecessor with a certain style (possible, mystical, symbolic, theological, justification, etc.). Respectively, an author of original text may or may not be indicated. For example, when the prophets are cited in the New Testament (like Moses, or David, or Daniel, etc.), therewith, by explaining the prophecy about the Lord the line is fixed, that this is the very Messiah the prophecy referred to, the one who is familiar with the faith and attends to it, etc. It should be mentioned also that, naturally, citation is not necessarily a compilation. We should draw a line between compilation and citation.
Key words: compilation; quote; quotation.
According to its classical definition compilation is a term in literary studies that implies an non-independent literary or scientific work, which, in turn, is based on researches or works made by others. In other words, this is composing on the basis of the researches or works made by others without conducting independent revision of sources or a work composed without independent edition; a work resulting from the application of such a method. The term originates from a Latin word “compilacio”, assemble, compile, according to one of the important definitions – work obtained as a result of combining, revising others’ works. A specific case of compilation is combining the sections from works of other authors without including in own original reflective system, inclusion and processing in an original creative process (information from the website compilation.ru. Compilations and compendia; under the rubric of the History of Roman Culture).
Further, Georgian and not only Georgian authors have quite often turned to the method of compilation.
It is known that Christian literature, in general, has been based on the Bible. The Biblical style of narration, the manner of relating the theme, language, and lexical fabric has to a significant extent conditioned inner dynamics of literary processes of Christian countries and main trends of development. In turn, the interdependence between the two parts of the Bible (Old and New Testament) was formulated by Saint Father Dmitri of Radonezh as follows: “What is Old Testament if not the concealment of new one and what is New Testament, if not the disclosure of the old one”. Bible researchers still stress a multi-dimensional secret connection between the Old and the New Testament. The relation and an absolutely obvious interdependence have been reflected in the style or the common line of narration methods. In this respect, from the Biblical style we are interested in gradual, iterative themes that we see in the Old, as well as the New Testament. It is sufficient to look into the Bible concordance and dictionary, or or an encyclopedic dictionary that it becomes evident how regular and typical the form of themes, borrowing, citation, known in literary studies as compilation is (I will bring several examples: Old Testament: Genesis 1.1 – Psalm, 88, 12-13; 135,5; 145,6; Zir.18,1-2; Johan 1.3; Acts 14,15; Revel.14,7, etc. And this is just a listing of parallel locations of just one article of the Bible. Obviously, the material is impressive). Herewith, it should be mentioned that the Bible has been translated into the languages of all Christian languages, or the languages of other nations of the world that had other interest. Translation and the development of translation methodology have added an additional aspect to compilation, as a method. Observation over the peculiarity of translations and the attempt to generalize the peculiarities of a large number of schools has led us to conclude that despite differences in the trends of main translation of schools, each subsequent translator bases his work on and uses the translation of his predecessor, despite possible positional difference (we mean that the Bible is not translated without significant grounded motivation. The need for translation is determined through the attempt to fill the existing gap, or updating the terminology of translation, or developing positional difference of translation methodology. Nevertheless, a common aspect amidst these differences may be transferred to a new translation and we see such example with George the Magnificent). In other words, in relation to the Bible we can see compilation in two cases: 1. Repetitiveness of theme and 2. Conditioned by translation. Both ones occur in the ecclesiastical literature and it should be said that this is not specific only to Georgian space. What can be the reason for such approach? I think that the different factors condition the repetition of theme as a a. stylistic attribute and b. as of a type of compilation. Firstly, this is a result of oral dissemination of Bible stories, and respectively, of late recording; thereby, a. it allowed for renewed remembrance to keep remembering the key events that depicted not just the history of Israel, but its interaction with the Lord; b. at the same time, this was the trust towards the previous authors;
We see two types of compilation in Biblical texts: revised (slightly or significantly) and unchanged. An approach, attitude is absolutely unrestricted and authors, original chroniclers are referenced not for the purpose we do at present, but in order to either add more credibility to narration, or depict the connection with the predecessor with a certain style (possible, mystical, symbolic, theological, justification, etc.). Respectively, an author of original text may or may not be indicated. For example, when the prophets are cited in the New Testament (like Moses, or David, or Daniel, etc.), therewith, by explaining the prophecy about the Lord the line is fixed, that this is the very Messiah the prophecy referred to, the one who is familiar with the faith and attends to it, etc. It should be mentioned also that, naturally, citation is not necessarily a compilation. We should draw a line between compilation and citation. Citation – is a word for word quote from any text. Herewith, it is important that cited (inserted) text is explicitly identified as quoted one (i.e., as part of another text). The original source – Late Latin word citatio, from Lat. cito – bring into action, shake, as well as appeal, call, in legal Latin --substantiate. Difference is absolutely evident. In the quote we have included the perception of text and identical repetition. Although, this is current, actual approach. In old writing the attitude is different and we can consider the following difference: citation is not included in an author’s idea, and we have compilation where various texts merge with one another so strongly that it is hard to separate the idea of another author.
This whole array of attitudes and actual conditions has moved to spiritual literature. Further, this is not characteristic of only Georgian authors. The Russian compilation “Explanatory Work” will serve as an example: about the issue of place and time of the creation of a monument. Here the author (N.P. Krasnoltsev) notes that Explanatory work is a compiled work that combines the definitions of symbolic meanings of the sections of a cathedral and liturgical items, as well as the definition of the preparation of the Eucharist bread and wine and the key elements of liturgy. (N.P. Krasnoseltsev was the first and still is the only researcher of this monument. He revealed and identified some parts of this compilation and offered the dating of the creation of the monument – 15th century). (Result of the search on the google.ru website –compilation in literature). We found such a note as well here: reception of A period of six days of the Johan of Bulgaria in Ancient Russia Literature: A period of six days – is a work that can be partially translated; the author would add own ideas to the compilation of other hexamerons and patristic literature.
As mentioned above, compilation, as a method, was spread throughout all the spheres of spiritual literature: historiography, exegetics, liturgical science, hagiography, hymnography, homiletics. Grigol Khandzteli, George Merchule, Michail Modrekili, Mtatsmindelebi, Gelatelebi would edit the works in this way… The typicon and annual compilation by Grigol Khandzteli is a result of application of such method (Ed. Chelidze). Works depicting the life of Saint Nino in exegetics, any monument, e.g., of the Period of Six Days, or the definitions by Teopilaqte of Bulgaria, or at the largest scale, this method can be seen in Johanne’s gardamocemaSi, in hymnography we can see the hymn for Epiphany by Michael Modrekili (its relation, firstly to Johan Sabanisdze, and, secondly, to exegetical monuments where Epiphany is defined). In homiletics we see such example in Nikoloz Gulabersdze’s work. Catholicos-Patriarch indicates the source just in two cases: this is Chronicles of Kartli and A period of Six Days by Basili the Great. In another instance, though, in Nikoloz Gulaberisdze’s work we can see the traces of Kartlis Moktseva (The Conversion of Kartli), Matiane Kartveltai (Chronicles of Georgians), other editions of the Life of Nino (e.g., that by Monk Arsen), work by Ephrem Mtsire (testament of our conversion in the Books of the Greek), as well as those of the sources of non-Georgian authors, Rufinus, Monk Melqiti Nikon, Moses Khorenatsi (Tamarashvili 1995:200-240), of World Church Congress (we mean the excerpts from the Creed, very notable and important, which Saint Nino says in the work and which, may not be present in other editions in such form), of the gardamocemis by Johan of Damascus can be seen, but without reference. Herewith, it is important that the author subordinates narration to his purpose and combines the works of various authors without leaving a difference invisible without special research. At the following stage of the research we plan to undertake the observation over the lexical apparatus of the compiled works. In the case of Gulaberisdze we would note that the qualities that are typical of Gelati authors appear in compiled sections, although with less intensity (collection Saint Nino, About Svetitskhoveli, our own article). The comparison of two editions of the Martyrdom of Saint Barbara (a and b editions, a 128- compiled edition a da b redaqciebi, a 128_ kompilirebuli red. vnaxo disertaciaSi) yields very interesting results. It is unclear what has conditioned the translation of two monuments with the same content under the same literary school during the same period, but the interrelationship among the whole episodes is evident. It is so accurate that if not the editorial difference between certain sections, based on these episodes we would conclude that this is due to the difference between versions.
Based on the afore-mentioned, it is possible that the peculiarities of some of the texts could be explained by the very compilation and not the expressed assumption about some other lost original (which relation to the edition of other existing, e.g. hagiographic monument is evident, but not identical. Often it is in such very cases that they make an assumption about a lost original. E.g., the editions of The life of Grigol the Miracle-worker were studied by N. Mrevlishvili who came to the conclusion that the source of a Georgian edition has been lost).
To sum up, we will come to the following conclusion:
1. Compilation, as a method, originates from the Bible stories;
2. It can be conditioned by translation activity;
3. Is met in original works;
4. From semantic-content perspective there are two types of compilation: a. full and b. partial;
5. Full compilation is rare, mostly we have fragmented, partial compilation;
6. Source may or may not be cited;
7. Differs from citation not because an author of compiled work sometimes does not indicate a source, but because sometimes it is included in an author’s overall objective and the citation loses its independent content;
8. Compilation has spread to almost all fields of spiritual literature;
9. The method of compilation is not characteristic of just Georgian authors and can be met in literary-cultural processes of the nations that follow the Bible;
10. The reason for such works is different. At a preliminary estimation, this is trust towards predecessor authors, adding credibility to a narration, etc.
11. From lexical standpoint, the impact of “borrowed” works sometimes is more apparent, and sometimes -- less;
12. This is a method of work, which can even be perceived as a style;
13. This is exactly why this method had just positive purpose and it is absolutely void of the present negative content (plagiarism is an absolutely different phenomenon and, naturally, has noting to do with the method of compilation).
Volume 5, Issue 1